Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpi (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

Lima, Juliane Ventura; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José María


Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to AsIII and AsV were nvestigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST U), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb AsV. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST U compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals,thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to AsIII and AsV can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism.

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