Effects of microcystins over short- and long-term memory and oxidative stress generation in hippocampus of rats

Maidana, Michelle; Carlis, Vania; Galhardi, Flora Gagliardi; Yunes, João Sarkis; Monserrat, Laura Alicia Geracitano; Monserrat, José María; Barros, Daniela Marti


Microcystins produced by cyanobacteria are potent inhibitors of some protein phosphatases, but recent evidence also indicatests potential to generate oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of microcystin raw extracts (Mic; 0.01 and 20 g/L) and purified okadaic acid(OA; 0.01 and 10 g/L) on short- and long-term memory alteration and antioxidant and oxidative damage were investigated in hippocampus of rats. The results showed an amnesic effect with 0.01 and 20 g/L Mic on retrieval and only with 0.01 g/L Mic on spatial learning. Parallel to these effects oxidative damage was observed as evidenced by augmented levels of lipid peroxides and DNA damage and the absence of antioxidant responses in terms of total oxyradical scavenging capacity. Phase II reactions catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase were not modified after microcystins exposure. Overall this study showed physiological events (retrieval and spatial learning) that can be related to the classical toxic effects of microcystins (i.e., phosphatase inhibition). In addition, evidence of alternative toxicity mechanisms via oxidative stress generation was also obtained. The fact that organic anion transporter polypeptides (OATP) involved in microcystins uptake are expressed not only in liver but also in brain points to the environmental relevance of the observed effects.

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  • ICB - Artigos publicados em periódicos