Bioconcentration of phenanthrene and metabolites in bile and behavioral alterations in the tropical estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara

Torreiro-Melo, Anny Gabrielle Araújo Graf; Silva, Juliana Scanoni; Bianchini, Adalto; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins de


Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in fish bile is widely used to evaluate levels of internal PAH contamination in fish, whereas behavioral effects are deemed important to address potential risks to fish populations. The estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara was exposed for 96 h to waterborne phenanthrene at concentrations of 10, 50, 200 and 500 lg L 1. Phenanthrene and metabolites in bile were analyzed by fixed fluorescence at 260/380 nm (excitation/emission) wavelengths. Phenanthrene increased in the bile of exposed fish in a dose-dependent pattern, and log bile bioconcentration factors ranged from 4.3 to 3.9 at 10 and 500 lg L 1 phenanthrene, respectively, values that are similar to predicted bioconcentration factors based on phenanthrene Kow. Swimming resistance index was reduced to 81% of control values at 500 lg L 1. Alteration of swimming speed was non monotonic, with a significant speed increase relative to control fish in treatments 50 and 200 lg L 1 phenanthrene, respectively, followed by a speed decrease in fish exposed to 500 lg L 1. However, swimming trajectories of fish exposed to 50, 200 and 500 lg L 1 was altered by the development of a repetitive circular swimming behavior, in contrast to the controls that explored the entire experimental arena. This change in swimming patterns apparently explains the reduction in prey capture rates at 200 lg L 1 phenanthrene. This study provides important information enabling the use of the estuarine guppy P. vivipara to monitor PAH metabolites in bile and its bioconcentration, linking internal exposure with ecologically relevant behavioral effects in the species.

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