The influence of delta ferrite in the AISI 416 stainless steel hot workability

Cardoso, Paulo Henrique Sanchez; Kwietniewski, Carlos Eduardo Fortis; Porto, João Paulo Sarmento; Reguly, Afonso; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto


Delta ferrite in martensitic stainless steels may have an adverse effect on the mechanical properties of these materials at high temperature. The occurrence of such phase is determined by the material chemical composition (mainly Cr and C), as-received microstructure condition and hot working temperature. The aim of this investigation is to assess the influence of delta ferrite on the hot workability of the martensitic AISI 416 stainless steel. Hence, different heats of this material (differing in chemical composition and as-received microstructure) were submitted to heating tests in order to observe the microstructural transformations that take place at high temperature and then examine the influence of these transformations on the mechanical behaviour. Phase characterisation and quantification were carried out using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and image analysis. The heating tests were performed in the temperature range of 1100/1350 8C and hot workability in two heats with different delta ferrite content was assessed by hot torsion tests in the temperature range of 1000/1250 8C. The results have indicated that chemical composition and as-received microstructure strongly affect delta ferrite formation, which in turn deteriorates hot workability of the martensitic AISI 416 stainless steel.


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