Sodium fluxes in Tamoatá, hoplosternum litoralle, exposed to formation water from Urucu reserve (Amazon, Brazil)

Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Garcia, Luciano de Oliveira; Benaduce, Ana Paula; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Nascimento, Thiago; Gomes, Levy de Carvalho; Gomes, Adriana Chippari; Val, Adalberto Luis


Formation water (produce water or oil field brine) from oil and gas production usually has high concentrations of soluble salts and metals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of formation water from Urucu Reserve, Amazon, on whole-body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Na+ in juvenile tamoatá, Hoplosternum litoralle. Groups of fish were submitted to nine treatments for 3 h in 400-ml chambers: control (well water), 5% formation water, and well water with respective concentrations of 5% formation water of Ca2+, Fe, Mn, Ba2+, Fe + Ca2+, Mn + Ca2+, and Ba + Ca2+ added. Specimens of tamoatá exposed to 5% formation water presented a very high Na+ influx, probably due to the high Na+ levels in this water. Waterborne Fe and Mn stimulated Na+ influx, but Fe increased Na+ efflux, causing Na+ loss. Waterborne Mn, on the other hand, decreased Na+ efflux, reducing Na+ loss by this species. Waterborne Ca2+ also affected Na+ influx but had no significant effect on net Na+ fluxes. These results demonstrated that spilling of formation water in ion-poor Amazon rivers would dramatically disrupt osmoregulatory balance of tamoatá and probably other Amazon fish species, impairing their survival and reduce biodiversity

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