Acute responses of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus 1766) to acid stress

Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Pedron, Janaína dos Santos; Romano, Luis Alberto; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Sampaio, Luís André Nassr de


Fish are potentially submitted to water acidification when reared in recirculating aquaculture systems. This study evaluated the responses of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum after acute exposure to acid water. Juvenile cobia (12.6 0.5 g; 14.2 0.2 cm) were acutely exposed to four pH levels (7.9 (control), 6.5, 6.0, and 5.5). After 24 h of exposure to different pH values, fish were sampled for physiological and histopathological evaluation. Acid water affected physiological parameters and induced morphological histopathologies on gill and skin of juvenile cobia, and these effects were more conspicuous with decreasing pH values. Acid stress induced blood acidosis in juvenile cobia, coupled to a decrease in bicarbonate (HCO3 ) and saturated O2 (sO2) in fish blood. On the other hand, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentration increased their values (P < 0.01) comparing to control level. Hyperplasia with completely fusion of secondary lamella was observed in all pH treatments (6.5. 6.0 and 5.5), while telangiectasia and proliferation of chloride cells were present for fish exposed to pH 6.0 and 5.5. In skin hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells, necrosis of these cells for fish exposed to pH 6.0 and 5.5 was observed. The results of this study demonstrate that acute acid water exposition affected physiology and histopathology in juvenile cobia, especially at pH values below 6.5. Accordingly, particular attention must be given to pH during cobia reared in recirculating aquaculture.

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