Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of apple Fuji and garlic

Moraes, Mariana Agostini de; Rosa, Gabriela Silveira da; Pinto, Luiz Antonio de Almeida


The moisture equilibrium isotherms of garlic and apple were determined at 50, 60 and 70 °C using the gravimetric static method. The experimental data were analysed using GAB, BET, Henderson–Thompson and Oswin equations. The isosteric heat and the differential entropy of desorption were determined by applying Clausius–Clapeyron and Gibbs–Helmholtz equations, respectively. The GAB equation showed the best fitting to the experimental data (R2 > 99% and E% < 10%). The monolayer moisture content values for apple were higher than those for garlic at the studied temperatures; the values varied from 0.050 to 0.056 and from 0.107 to 0.168 for garlic and apple, respectively. The isosteric heat and the differential entropy of desorption were estimated in function of the moisture content. The values of these thermodynamic properties were higher for apple (in range 48–100 kJ mol−1 and 14–150 J mol−1 K−1) than for garlic (in range 43–68 kJ mol−1 and 0–66 J mol−1 K−1). The water surface area values decreased with increasing temperature. The Kelvin and the Halsey equations were used to calculate the pore size distribution.

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